A List of Performance Enhancing Drugs and Their Definitions


In particular, Ben Johnson’s positive test for stanozolol at the Seoul Olympic Games in 1988 brought widespread public attention to AASs. While scientists were busy improving techniques to detect the anabolic-androgenic steroids they knew about in the early 2000s, Barry Bonds was busy hitting home runs. Little did the MLB know that behind the scenes, Bonds and other athletes had been using a newly synthesized steroid, tetrahydrogestrinone (THG), designed specifically for potent anabolic effects and with anti-doping testing protocols in mind. Dubbed “The Clear”, THG could not be detected in urine initially because the anti-doping program had no knowledge of its existence or metabolites. During an investigation, a sample of THG was extracted from the residue of a spent syringe and identified, after which an LC-MS/MS method could be easily developed for screening4.

Chapter 2: Performance-Enhancing Drugs Used In Sports

types of performance-enhancing drugs

With all the information, attention, and debate over performance-enhancing drugs (or PEDs), many people want to further understand how performance-enhancing drugs affect one’s body. It’s an important area of concern for athletes and at the foundation of why USADA and other anti-doping organizations exist. Simply put, PEDs have the ability or potential to drastically alter the human body and biological functions, including the ability to considerably improve athletic performance in certain instances. These drugs, however, can be extremely dangerous and, in certain situations, deadly.

Risk Factors

types of performance-enhancing drugs

The ingestion of glucose is vital to this type of doping, given the glucose-lowering action of insulin, especially in those with normal tissue insulin sensitivity. The rationale of injecting insulin as a PED relates to its mediation of increases in the transport of glucose and amino acids into Performance Enhancing Drugs skeletal muscle and its effects on muscle fibers. By infusing insulin along with stable isotopes of glucose and amino acids into human muscle (quadriceps), Biolo and coworkers (386) were able to demonstrate an approximately 70% increase in the fractional synthetic rate of muscle protein.

Risk factors

Title IX, which was passed in 1972, promoted equal numbers of male and female college athletes and increased the number of female athletes. In 1972, there were ∼25,000 female high school athletes, in comparison to 3 million in 2000. (1) This number has been stable at 3 million in 2007, according to Title IX https://ecosoberhouse.com/ data. It is difficult to estimate the prevalence of steroid misuse in the United States because many national surveys that ask about drug use do not include questions about steroids. However, data on steroid misuse among young students are available from the NIDA-supported Monitoring the Future Survey.

  • Beta Blockers are prohibited by several sports (darts, racing) during competition, but others (archery, shooting) prohibit their use at all times.
  • HBOCs are not only great at tissue oxygenation, they can deliver increases in blood serum iron, ferritin and naturally occurring EPO.
  • Ephedra was banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2004 due to its numerous adverse effects, such as hypertension, weight loss, insomnia, anxiety, tremors, headaches, arrhythmias, strokes, and psychosis.
  • Our study demonstrated high prevalence of alcohol use among bodybuilding athletes.
  • Furthermore, 110 (47%) of athletes reported stimulant agents’ use during their routines.

Why are anabolic steroids misused?

  • Part of the difficulty is in finding athletes who would agree to participate in such a study.
  • These sites are recognized by neurosteroids produced endogenously in the brain.
  • Repeated doses of EPO can also stimulate the development of antibodies directed against EPO, which can result in anaemia.

The negative effects these drugs can have on one’s body make USADA’s mission paramount as to why no athlete should ever have to consider PED use to succeed in sport. In adults, HGH increases the number of red blood cells, boosts heart function and makes more energy available by stimulating the breakdown of fat. Other effects attributed to HGH include increase in muscle mass and strength as well as tissue-repairing (recovery). However as HGH is often used in conjunction with other PEDs its direct role in these benefits is unproven.

D. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents

  • It is important to remember that not all PED users are involved in athletic activities and the motive might be to enhance looks.
  • The development of Athlete Biological Passports (see below), has made even this method more detectable, as the passports allow testers to see the indirect markers of blood doping.
  • Accordingly, 453 male bodybuilding athletes were recruited from Bushehr gyms between February and May of 2015.

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Bodybuilding: A Comprehensive Review of Performance-Enhancing Substance Use and Public Health Implications – Cureus

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